Handness is not genetic
Vaccines and autism
All published medical research are wrong?
PlosMed Bayesian paper.
Myopia and sleeping light, Correlation or causation?
Studies including this type of error are published even in leading biomedical journals. For example, a 1999 Nature study found a strong association between myopia, or near-sightedness, and night-time ambient light exposure during sleep in children. The authors concluded that it seems prudent that infants and young children sleep at night without artificial lighting in the bedroom. A later study refuted these findings and reported that, in this case, the cause of myopia was genetic, not environmental, as many of the study participants’ parents also suffered from the condition. Of course, the fact that “correlation does not imply causation” should not lead towards diametrically opposite conclusions that correlation could not point to a possible existence of causality. Correlations, especially the high value of the linear correlation coefficient, may point to the existence of causality, but the conclusion requires systematic examination.Chocolate and brain development
One example of ecological inference fallacy is a 2012 paper in a New England Journal of Medicine: the study author found that there was a close and significant linear correlation between chocolate consumption per capita and the number of Nobel laureates per 10 million persons in a total of 23 countries. On the basis of this finding, he concluded that chocolate consumption enhances cognitive function and closely correlates with the number of Nobel laureates in each country. But without accurate data at the individual level, it is impossible to draw such a conclusion. For example, it was unknown how much and whether Nobel laureates consumed chocolate.GDP per capita