Sunday, October 28, 2018

vitamins


vitamins

维生素


https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E7%BB%B4%E7%94%9F%E7%B4%A0

维生素英语:Vitamin)是一系列有机化合物的统称。它们是生物体所需要的微量营养成分,而一般又无法由生物体自己生产,需要通过饮食等手段获得。维生素不能像糖类蛋白质脂肪那样可以产生能量,组成细胞,但是它们对生物体的新陈代谢起调节作用。缺乏维生素会导致严重的健康问题;适量摄取维生素可以保持身体强壮健康;过量摄取维生素却会导致中毒

维生素分为两种,水溶性维生素和脂溶性维生素。“水溶性维生素”易溶于水而不易溶于非极性有机溶剂,吸收后体内贮存很少,过量的多从尿中排出,且容易在烹调中遇热破坏;“脂溶性维生素”易溶于非极性有机溶剂,而不易溶于水,可随脂肪为人体吸收并在体内储积,排泄率不高。每一种维生素通常会产生多种反应,因此大多数维生素都有多种功能[4]
人体一共需要13种维生素,其中包括4种脂溶性维生素(维生素A,D,E,K)和9种水溶性维生素(8种维生素B,维生素C)。

人体会储藏脂溶性维生素,所以摄入过量会积存在身体特别是肝脏中,有中毒危险。水溶性维生素会通过肾脏排泄,相对安全,但是也不可摄入过量,因为有可能超量的维生素会在体内发生其他生物化学反应。
通常从食物中正常摄取维生素不会存在过量的问题,但是食用过多维生素药品就有可能发生危险。

============
维生素英语:Vitamin)是一系列有机化合物的统称。它们是生物体所需要的微量营养成分,而一般又无法由生物体自己生产,需要通过饮食等手段获得。维生素对生物体的新陈代谢起调节作用。缺乏维生素会导致严重的健康问题;适量摄取维生素可以保持身体强壮健康;过量摄取维生素却会导致中毒

维生素分为两种,水溶性维生素和脂溶性维生素。“水溶性维生素”易溶于水而不易溶于非极性有机溶剂,吸收后体内贮存很少,过量的多从尿中排出,且容易在烹调中遇热破坏;“脂溶性维生素”易溶于非极性有机溶剂,而不易溶于水,可随脂肪为人体吸收并在体内储积,排泄率不高。每一种维生素通常会产生多种反应,因此大多数维生素都有多种功能[4]
人体一共需要13种维生素,其中包括4种脂溶性维生素(维生素A,D,E,K)和9种水溶性维生素(8种维生素B,维生素C)。

维生素B1肉类、酵母肝脏大豆、糙米、胚芽米、米糠、芝麻、腰果、燕麦
维生素B2酵母菌蔬菜、蛋类、牡蛎、牛奶、乳酪
维生素B3谷物肝脏米糠、蛋、牛奶、起士、乳酪
维生素B6 : 酵母牛肉胚芽、蛋类、乳制品
维生素B7 : 酵母菌肝脏、全麦面包
维生素B12 : 肝脏、鱼类、肉类、蛋类
维生素C : 新鲜蔬菜、水果
维生素D : 鱼肝油蛋黄、乳制品、酵母菌
维生素E : 胚芽蛋黄植物油、坚果类、鱼类: 
维生素K : 菠菜苜蓿白菜、肝脏
人体会储藏脂溶性维生素,所以摄入过量会积存在身体特别是肝脏中,有中毒危险。水溶性维生素会通过肾脏排泄,相对安全,但是也不可摄入过量,因为有可能超量的维生素会在体内发生其他生物化学反应。
通常从食物中正常摄取维生素不会存在过量的问题,但是食用过多维生素药品就有可能发生危险。



Saturday, October 13, 2018

genome wide crisp screen in human pancreatic tumor cell line



* Nature medicine, 2017. genome wide SCRIPS screens reveal a Wnt-FZD5 signaling circuit as a druggable vulnerability of RNF43 mutant pancreativ tumaors


https://www.nature.com/articles/nm.4219#supplementary-information
raw reads counts in Excel table
https://www.nature.com/articles/nm.4219#supplementary-information


From the paper, Bayes Factor BF is the confidence of a gene caucses a decrease in fitness. So, high BF indicates decrease in fitness (essential genes), and low BF indicate proliferation.

FZD5 genes shows highest BF factor in 3 pancreatic cancer cell lines, but not in other cells lines. Hence, its essentiality is "context sensitive".


Wednesday, October 10, 2018

NIH proposal FAQs



Font (size, color, type density) and Line Spacing
Adherence to font size, type density, line spacing and text color requirements is necessary to ensure readability and fairness. Although font requirements apply to all attachments, they are most important and most heavily scrutinized in attachments with page limits.
Text in your attachments must follow these minimum requirements:
  • Font sizeMust be 11 points or larger. Smaller text in figures, graphs, diagrams and charts is acceptable, as long as it is legible when the page is viewed at 100%.
    • Some PDF conversion software reduces font size. It is important to confirm that the final PDF document complies with the font requirements.
  • Type density:  Must be no more than 15 characters per linear inch (including characters and spaces).
  • Line spacing: Must be no more than six lines per vertical inch.
  • Text color: No restriction. Though not required, black or other high-contrast text colors are recommended since they print well and are legible to the largest audience.
We recommended the following fonts, although other fonts (both serif and non-serif) are acceptable if they meet the above requirements.
  • Arial
  • Georgia
  • Helvetica
  • Palatino Linotype
Legibility is of paramount importance. Applications that include PDF attachments that do not conform to the minimum requirements listed above may be withdrawn from consideration.



paper and margin
https://grants.nih.gov/grants/how-to-apply-application-guide/format-and-write/format-attachments.htm#papersizeandmargins 

  • Use paper size no larger than standard letter paper size (8 ½" x 11”).
  • Provide at least one-half inch margins (½" ) - top, bottom, left, and right - for all pages. No applicant-supplied information can appear in the margins.

Monday, October 8, 2018

human connectome, aging, and images


https://www.humanconnectome.org/

HEALTHY ADULT CONNECTOMESThe Human Connectome Project (HCP) has tackled one of the great scientific challenges of the 21st century: mapping the human brain, aiming to connect its structure to function and behavior.

Saturday, October 6, 2018

synthetic yeast

Shen MJ,  Heterozygou diploid and interspecies SCZCRaMbLEing
Nature communication, 2018 May

Hocherien L, L-SCRaMbLE as a tool for light controlled cre-mediated recombination in yeast
Nature communication, may 2018

Luo J, Karyotype engineering by chromosome fusion leads to reproductive isolation in yeast, Nature, August 2018.

Shao Y, Creating a functional single-chromosome yeast, Nature, August 2018.




Life history traits impact the nuclear rate of substitution but not the mitochondrial rate in isopods


https://academic.oup.com/mbe/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/molbev/msy184/5106169?redirectedFrom=fulltext\

Golden–Thompson inequality


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden%E2%80%93Thompson_inequality

https://arxiv.org/abs/1408.2008

Tuesday, October 2, 2018

yeast genomes

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/60


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/66

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene?LinkName=genome_gene&from_uid=15

Song G., et al., 2014. AGAPE (Automated Genome Analysis PipelinE) for Pan-Genome 
Analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  PLoS ONE, in press.

1.
Baker's yeast, brewer's yeast
Kingdom: 
Eukaryota
Subgroup: 
Ascomycetes
Sequence data: genome assemblies:
502
Haploid chromosomes: 
16
Plasmids: 
1
Organelles: 
1
Date: 
1992/03/16
2.
Budding yeast, member of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto group
Kingdom: 
Eukaryota
Subgroup: 
Ascomycetes
Sequence data: genome assemblies:
20
Date: 
2003/05/22
3.
Belongs to group I/Saaz-type lager yeast strains
Kingdom: 
Eukaryota
Subgroup: 
Ascomycetes
Sequence data: genome assemblies:
14
Date: 
2009/03/11
4.
Saccharomyces sensu stricto budding yeast used in winemaking and sequenced for a comparative genomics study of Saccharomyces species
Kingdom: 
Eukaryota
Subgroup: 
Ascomycetes
Sequence data: genome assemblies:
6
Haploid chromosomes: 
16
Organelles: 
1
Date: 
2003/03/28
5.
Saccharomyces sensu stricto budding yeast sequenced for comparative genomics studies of Saccharomycesspecies
Kingdom: 
Eukaryota
Subgroup: 
Ascomycetes
Sequence data: genome assemblies:
2
Date: 
2003/03/28
6.
Saccharomyces sensu stricto budding yeast used in winemaking and sequenced for comparative genomics studies
Kingdom: 
Eukaryota
Subgroup: 
Ascomycetes
Sequence data: genome assemblies:
1
Date: 
2003/05/22
7.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae x Saccharomyces kudriavzevii overview
Kingdom: 
Eukaryota
Subgroup: 
Ascomycetes
Sequence data: genome assemblies:
2
Plasmids: 
1
Date: 
2011/12/23
8.
Saccharomyces sp. 'boulardii' Organism overview
Kingdom: 
Eukaryota
Subgroup: 
Ascomycetes
Sequence data: genome assemblies:
8
Haploid chromosomes: 
18
Date: 
2013/08/01
9.
Bottom-fermenting wine yeast
Kingdom: 
Eukaryota
Subgroup: 
Ascomycetes
Sequence data: genome assemblies:
6
Date: 
2003/03/28
10.
Yeast living in Quercus bark
Kingdom: 
Eukaryota
Subgroup: 
Ascomycetes
Sequence data: genome assemblies:
1
Haploid chromosomes: 
16
Organelles: 
1
Date: 
2012/08/16
11.
Saccharomyces sp. M14 overview
Kingdom: 
Eukaryota
Subgroup: 
Ascomycetes
Sequence data: genome assemblies:
1
Date: 
2017/09/27
12.
The cold-tolerant parent of hybrid lager-brewing yeasts
Kingdom: 
Eukaryota
Subgroup: 
Ascomycetes
Sequence data: genome assemblies:
2
Haploid chromosomes: 
16
Plasmids: 
1
Organelles: 
1
Date: 
2015/08/19
13.
Kingdom: 
Eukaryota
Subgroup: 
Ascomycetes
Sequence data: genome assemblies:
1
Haploid chromosomes: 
17
Organelles: 
1
Date: 
2018/08/19
14.
Saccharomyces sensu lato yeast sequenced for a comparative genomics study
Kingdom: 
Eukaryota
Subgroup: 
Ascomycetes
Sequence data: genome assemblies:
2
Date: 
2017/07/05
15.
Petite-negative budding yeast (known as Lachancea kluyveri or Saccharomyces kluyveri) sequenced for comparative genomics studies
Kingdom: 
Eukaryota
Subgroup: 
Ascomycetes
Sequence data: genome assemblies:
1
Haploid chromosomes: 
8
Date: 
2003/05/22
16.
Member of the Saccharomyces sensu lato budding yeast group
Kingdom: 
Eukaryota
Subgroup: 
Ascomycetes
Sequence data: genome assemblies:
2
Haploid chromosomes: 
10
Date: 
2003/05/22
17.
Related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae but diverged before a whole genome duplication event from which Baker's yeast arose
Kingdom: 
Eukaryota
Subgroup: 
Ascomycetes
Sequence data: genome assemblies:
1
Date: 
2004/03/15
18.
A yeast in the Saccharomyces sensu lato group
Kingdom: 
Eukaryota
Subgroup: 
Ascomycetes
Sequence data: genome assemblies:
2
Haploid chromosomes: 
11
Date: 
2011/08/16
19.
Yeast (aka Kluyveromyces polysporus) that represents the post-WGD lineage most divergent from Saccharomycescerevisiae
Kingdom: 
Eukaryota
Subgroup: 
Ascomycetes
Sequence data: genome assemblies:
1
Date: 
2007/04/25
20.
Cause of wine spoilage
Kingdom: 
Eukaryota
Subgroup: 
Ascomycetes
Sequence data: genome assemblies:
6
Date: 
2012/04/27